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How to improve concentration and memory

Improving concentration and memory involves a combination of lifestyle changes, habits, techniques, and exercises. Here are several recommendations to help you boost both:

Author: Jianyu Wang Li
Checked by: Felix Martins

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1. Healthy Lifestyle Choices:

Engaging in Sports

Participating in sports offers a range of benefits for both the body and mind:

  • Physical Fitness: Regular physical activity through sports enhances cardiovascular health, muscle strength, and flexibility. An optimally functioning body can support a healthier brain.
  • Enhanced Cognition: Sports often require strategic thinking, coordination, and quick decision-making, all of which can sharpen cognitive abilities.
  • Mood Enhancement: Physical activity, like sports, releases endorphins – the body's natural mood elevators. This can reduce stress and anxiety, which are detrimental to cognitive health.
  • Social Interaction: Team sports, in particular, offer a chance for social interaction, fostering communication skills, teamwork, and understanding of group dynamics.
  • Discipline and Routine: Committing to a sport can instill discipline, routine, and time management skills, all of which have overarching benefits for daily life and cognitive functions.


  • Eat brain-boosting foods: Include omega-3 fatty acids (found in fatty fish like salmon), blueberries, turmeric, broccoli, pumpkin seeds, dark chocolate, nuts, and oranges.
  • Stay hydrated: Dehydration can impair attention and long-term memory.
  • Limit sugar and processed foods: Excessive sugar consumption has been linked to poor memory and reduced brain volume.
  • Physical Exercise: Regular physical activity increases blood flow to the brain and enhances cognitive functions. Even a simple walk can help.


  • Importance of Sleep: Sleep is crucial for various cognitive functions, including concentration, productivity, and memory. During deep sleep, the brain solidifies new memories, consolidates information, and repairs and regrows tissue.
  • Sleep Cycles: The brain goes through multiple cycles of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Both stages are essential for different cognitive functions. For instance, REM sleep, which is when we dream, is linked to creativity and problem-solving abilities.
  • Consistent Schedule: Maintain a regular sleep routine, going to bed and waking up at the same times each day, even on weekends. This helps regulate your body's internal clock.
  • Sleep Environment: Ensure your sleeping environment is conducive to rest. This means a dark, quiet, and cool room. Using blackout curtains, earplugs, a white noise machine, or a fan can help.
  • Limit Screen Time: The blue light emitted by phones, tablets, computers, and TVs can interfere with the production of the sleep hormone melatonin. Aim to switch off these devices at least an hour before bedtime.
  • Quality over Quantity: While adults typically need 7-9 hours of sleep, the quality of sleep is just as important. Deep, uninterrupted sleep is more beneficial than longer hours of restless sleep.

Avoid drugs and alcohol:

  • Impact on Cognitive Function: Chronic use of drugs and excessive alcohol consumption can lead to cognitive decline, affecting areas of the brain responsible for memory, decision-making, and problem-solving.
  • Alcohol and Memory: While occasional moderate alcohol consumption may not have a long-term impact on brain health, excessive drinking can lead to memory lapses, and over time, can cause permanent damage to the brain, leading to conditions like Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
  • Drugs and Brain Structure: Many drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and certain prescription medications taken without a medical necessity or in excessive doses, can alter brain structure and function. These changes can affect behaviors, judgment, and memory.
  • Dependency and Brain Health: Dependence on drugs or alcohol can lead to a reduction in the brain's gray and white matter, which can result in long-term cognitive challenges.
  • Recovery and Brain Health: The good news is that with prolonged sobriety and the right interventions, the brain can recover some of its previous functions, though it might not return entirely to its pre-addiction state.
  • Informed Choices: If you choose to consume alcohol, do so in moderation, and always be aware of any medications or health conditions that might interact adversely with alcohol. Avoiding illicit drugs and only taking prescription drugs as recommended by a healthcare professional can help maintain optimal brain health.

2. Mindfulness and Meditation:

  • Understanding Mindfulness: Mindfulness is the practice of staying present and fully engaging with the current moment. It's about observing your feelings, thoughts, and sensations without judgment.
  • Benefits for the Brain: Mindfulness and meditation can increase gray matter density in the brain, especially in areas related to memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress. Regular practice can also improve focus, mood, and emotional regulation.
  • Meditation: There are various forms of meditation, each with its own focus and technique. Some popular types include:
    • Concentration Meditation: Focusing on a single point, which could be your breath, repeating a single word or mantra, or even staring at a candle flame.
    • Guided Meditation: Visualizing a place or situation as directed by a guide or teacher.
    • Body Scan Meditation: Paying attention to various parts of your body, from your toes to the top of your head.
    • Introducing Practice: Start with just a few minutes each day, gradually increasing the duration as you become more comfortable. Even short sessions can have benefits for your brain and concentration.
  • Mindful Moments: Incorporate mindfulness throughout your day. It's not just about meditative sessions but being present in everyday activities like eating, walking, or even listening.

Regular meditation can improve focus, concentration, creativity, and memory. The practice of mindfulness meditation, in particular, can help you stay present and attentive to the current moment.

3. Cognitive Training:

  • Understanding Cognitive Training: Cognitive training involves exercises or activities specifically designed to improve brain function, particularly in areas of memory, concentration, and problem-solving.
  • Brain Games: Engaging in games that challenge the mind can boost various cognitive functions:
    • Puzzles: Sudoku, crossword puzzles, and logic games require strategic thinking and pattern recognition.
    • Strategy Games: Games like chess, Mahjong Solitaire, and board games encourage planning, foresight, and memory.
  • Neuroplasticity: This is the brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections. Cognitive training leverages neuroplasticity, allowing the brain to improve its function even in adulthood.
  • Benefits: Regular cognitive training can delay cognitive decline associated with aging, improve memory recall, and enhance the speed of processing information.
  • Consistency is Key: For cognitive training to be effective, it's essential to engage in exercises consistently. It's like muscle training; sporadic workouts won't yield significant results.
  • Real-world Applications: While digital brain games are popular, everyday activities like learning a new instrument, reading challenging books, or taking up a new hobby also serve as effective cognitive training.

4. Memory Techniques:

  • Understanding Memory: Memory involves encoding, storing, and recalling information. The techniques below are designed to facilitate these processes.
  • Chunking: This technique breaks information into bite-sized chunks, making it easier to digest. For example, instead of trying to remember a 10-digit number, you can chunk it into two sets of 5 or five sets of 2.
  • Mnemonics: Mnemonics are memory aids. They could be in the form of songs, rhymes, or patterns that help recall information. For instance, "Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit" can be used to remember the lines of the treble clef in music.
  • Visualization: Turning information into a visual image helps anchor it more solidly in the brain. If you're trying to remember a grocery list, you might visualize a scene with the items on your list playing a part.
  • Association: Linking new information with something familiar enhances memory. For example, if you meet someone named Rose, you might associate them with a rose flower.
  • Spaced Repetition: Instead of cramming, review information at increasing intervals. This reinforces the memory trace.
  • Storytelling: Creating a narrative around a list or set of facts can make them more memorable.
  • Teaching: One of the best ways to solidify your understanding and memory of a topic is to teach it to someone else.

5. Healthy Habits:

  • Consistency: Establishing routines and habits can reduce the cognitive load of daily decisions, allowing for better mental clarity and focus.
  • Physical Activity: Regular physical exercise not only benefits the body but also the mind. It enhances blood flow to the brain and can aid in neurogenesis (the formation of new neurons).
  • Balanced Diet: Consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats can provide the essential nutrients needed for optimal brain function.
  • Hydration: The brain is about 75% water. Staying hydrated is crucial for maintaining cognitive functions like attention and memory.
  • Limiting Multitasking: Focusing on one task at a time increases efficiency and reduces mistakes. Juggling too many tasks can dilute concentration.
  • Breaks: Short, regular breaks during tasks can rejuvenate the mind. The Pomodoro Technique, for example, suggests 25 minutes of work followed by a 5-minute break.
  • Stress Management: Chronic stress can impair cognitive function and memory. Techniques such as deep breathing, yoga, and journaling can help manage stress.
  • Lifelong Learning: Continuously challenging the brain with new information or skills keeps it active and sharp. It can be through reading, taking courses, or exploring new hobbies.

6. Environment:

  • Organized Space: A clutter-free and organized environment can reduce distractions and improve focus. Keeping your workspace tidy can boost productivity and reduce feelings of overwhelm.
  • Natural Light: Exposure to natural sunlight during the day can enhance mood, improve sleep patterns, and boost cognitive function. If possible, position your workspace near a window.
  • Ergonomics: Ensure that your workspace is ergonomically set up. An appropriate chair height, monitor positioning, and keyboard placement can prevent strain and increase comfort, leading to longer periods of concentration.
  • Noise Control: Some people work best in complete silence, while others prefer background noise. Find your optimal noise level. Noise-cancelling headphones or apps that play ambient sounds can be beneficial.
  • Green Spaces: Studies have shown that spending time in nature or even just having plants in your workspace can improve mental well-being, enhance concentration, and boost memory.
  • Optimal Temperature: Research suggests that a slightly cooler environment can be beneficial for cognitive tasks. Aim for a comfortable temperature that doesn’t make you feel too warm.

7. Stay Social:

  • Brain Stimulation: Engaging in social interactions challenges the brain, as it requires processing different viewpoints, emotions, and body languages.
  • Emotional Well-being: Strong social connections can lead to increased feelings of happiness and reduced feelings of depression. Emotional well-being has a direct impact on cognitive function.
  • Group Activities: Join clubs or groups that align with your interests. Activities like group discussions, book clubs, or group fitness classes can offer both social interaction and cognitive stimulation.
  • Networking: Building new relationships or strengthening existing ones can introduce you to new ideas, cultures, and perspectives, broadening your horizon and cognitive flexibility.
  • Stay Active Online: If physical meetings are challenging, engage in meaningful online communities, forums, or virtual meet-ups.

8. Stay Curious:

  • Lifelong Learning: Embrace the habit of continuous learning. Whether it's through formal education, online courses, or self-taught practices, always strive to expand your knowledge.
  • Ask Questions: The act of asking questions not only aids in understanding but also stimulates the brain to think critically.
  • Travel: Exploring new places exposes you to different cultures, languages, and experiences, enriching your worldview and stimulating your brain.
  • Reading: Dive into books, articles, or journals about unfamiliar topics. Reading not only improves vocabulary and comprehension but also fuels curiosity.
  • New Experiences: Try a new hobby, eat unfamiliar foods, or listen to different genres of music. Novel experiences can activate the brain's reward system and promote cognitive flexibility.

Final word

By incorporating these suggestions into your daily routine and making them habits, you can significantly improve your concentration and memory over time. Remember, the key is consistency.

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